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Glossary

The following definitions are taken from the revised draft text of an agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction. Please click here for the full draft text. Some of the definitions are still under negotiation, this is denoted by the square brackets and alternative versions. 

[1. “Access” means, in relation to marine genetic resources, the collection of marine genetic resources [, including marine genetic resources accessed in situ, ex situ [and in silico] [[and] [as digital sequence information] [as genetic sequence data]]].] 

2. “Activity under a State’s jurisdiction or control” means an activity over which a State has effective control or exercises jurisdiction. 

3. “Area-based management tool” means a tool, including a marine protected area, for a geographically defined area through which one or several sectors or activities are managed with the aim of achieving particular conservation and sustainable use objectives [and affording higher protection than that provided in the surrounding areas]. 

4. “Areas beyond national jurisdiction” means the high seas and the Area. 

5. “Convention” means the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. 

[6. “Cumulative impacts” means impacts on the same ecosystems resulting from different activities, including past, present or reasonably foreseeable activities, or from the repetition of similar activities over time, including climate change, ocean acidification and related impacts.] 

[7. Alt. 1. “Environmental impact assessment” means a process to evaluate the environmental impact of an activity [to be carried out in areas beyond national jurisdiction [, with an effect on areas within or beyond national jurisdiction]] [, taking into account [, inter alia,] interrelated [socioeconomic] [social and economic], cultural and human health impacts, both beneficial and adverse].] [7. Alt. 2. “Environmental impact assessment” means a process for assessing the potential effects of planned activities, carried out in areas beyond national jurisdiction, under the jurisdiction or control of States Parties that may cause substantial pollution of or significant and harmful changes to the marine environment.] 

[8. “Marine genetic material” means any material of marine plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units of heredity.] 

[9. Alt. 1. “Marine genetic resources” means any material of marine plant, animal, microbial or other origin, [found in or] originating from areas beyond national jurisdiction and containing functional units of heredity with actual or potential value of their genetic and biochemical properties.] [9. Alt. 2. “Marine genetic resources” means marine genetic material of actual or potential value.] 

10. “Marine protected area” means a geographically defined marine area that is designated and managed to achieve specific [long-term biodiversity] conservation and sustainable use objectives [and that affords higher protection than the surrounding areas]. 

[11. “Marine technology” means information and data, provided in a user-friendly format, on marine sciences and related marine operations and services; manuals, guidelines, criteria, standards, reference materials; sampling and methodology equipment; observation facilities and equipment (e.g., remote sensing equipment, buoys, tide gauges, shipboard and other means of ocean observation); equipment for in situ and laboratory observations, analysis and experimentation; computer and computer software, including models and modelling techniques; and expertise, knowledge, skills, technical, scientific and legal know-how and analytical methods related to marine scientific research and observation.] 

12. (a) “States Parties” means States that have consented to be bound by this Agreement and for which this Agreement is in force. (b) This Agreement applies mutatis mutandis: (i) To any entity referred to in article 305, paragraph 1 (c), (d) and (e), of the Convention, and (ii) Subject to article 67, to any entity referred to as an “international organization” in annex IX, article 1, of the Convention that becomes a Party to this Agreement, and to that extent “States Parties” refers to those entities. 

[13. “Strategic environmental assessment” means the evaluation of the likely environmental, including health, effects, which comprises the determination of the scope of an environmental report and its preparation, the carrying out of public participation and consultations, and the taking into account of the environmental report and the results of the public participation and consultations in a plan or programme.] 

[14. “Transfer of marine technology” means the transfer of the instruments, equipment, vessels, processes and methodologies required to produce and use knowledge to improve the study and understanding of the nature and resources of the ocean.] 

[15. “Utilization of marine genetic resources” means to conduct research and development on the genetic and/or biochemical composition of marine genetic resources [, as well as the exploitation thereof].]